On November 5, 2018, Voyager 2 of NASA was the only spacecraft in history that left the heliosphere (A protective bubble of particles and magnetic fields created by the sun) voyager 2 had already entered a region between stars known interstellar at an approximate distance of 18 billion kilometres from earth beyond the orbit of Pluto. What scientists observed during the historic crossing of voyage 2 is written in the journal known as nature astronomy, which consists of five research papers.
According to each of the research papers, the findings from voyage 2 consist of five operating instruments of science. They include a magnetic field sensor, the devices that detect particles of energy in different ranges of energy and two tools for studying plasma- a gas made up of charged particles. The findings aid in creating a picture of this cosmic shoreline when taken together. They explain where the environment, which is created by the sun ends and the origin of the vast interstellar ocean.
The heliosphere of the sun is compared to a ship sailing through the space of the interstellar. The spaces of Heliosphere and interstellar are filled with plasma, which contains stripped atoms of the electrons. The plasma contained in the heliosphere is hot and sparse while that in the interstellar space is cold and denser. The stars are composed of cosmic rays or particles that accelerate when the stars explode, between their spaces. According to discoveries made by voyager one, the heliosphere is said to protect the earth and other planets from more than 70% of its radiation.
After the exit of voyager 2 from the heliosphere last year, it was reported by scientists that two of its energy particles observed some dramatic changes. The changes observed were, plummeting of the rate of particles in the heliosphere detected by instruments, the rate of cosmic rays increased dramatically as they remained high. These changes affirmed that the probe had already entered a new destination in space.
In 2012, before Voyager 1 arrived at the edge of the heliosphere, scientists did not have any clue of the distance between this boundary and the sun. The two probes left the heliosphere from different locations and a different time. Scientists expected heliopause –the edge of heliosphere to move when the activities of the sun change.
Currently, the new papers reported that Voyager 2 is not disturbing in the space of the interstellar as compared to voyager 1. Ed Stone, a scientist, stated that the voyager probes show us the interaction of the sun with the particles that fill most of the space between the stars in the Milky Way galaxy.